Shell and Tube Condenser

The Shell and tube condenser is a common form of refrigeration equipment. It is an efficient way to cool air-conditioning systems and heat-exchangers. Its two sides are connected by baffles and space around the tubes. The shell side fluid flows into the condenser’s outlet through connection number four. In a Shell and tube condenser, the fluids from the tube side and the shell side come in indirect contact, facilitating heat exchange. However, the process can be modified to introduce slight variations.

X-shell condenser

A common feature of an X-shell condenser is that it uses cold seawater on the tube side and off-gas on the shell. A CFD pressure-drop model was developed based on the X-ist ratings supplied by the client. These calculations enabled the substitution of porous media to improve flow distribution. Using these calculations, the HTRI team was able to develop a reliable CFD model for other flow conditions.

The design criteria for an X-shell condenser can be determined by analyzing the number of tubes in the shell. The length of each tube can be calculated by calculating the total number of tubes. However, an X-shell condenser is less costly. A TASC simulation of the condenser’s shell can help you estimate the number of tubes. It can also tell you the number of tubes in the exchanger and its axial length.

C-type front header

A-type front header allows you to reach the tubes without disturbing the pipework. It is also easy to replace and repair. B-type front header requires you to remove the header before you can access the tubes. A-type headers are more affordable, but they are not ideal for high-pressure applications. C-type front headers are suitable for high-pressure applications but are harder to repair and maintain.

The Pitch of a condenser is the distance between the centres of the tubes. Typically, it is 1.25 times the outside diameter. However, other tube pitches are available that help reduce pressure drop on the shell side, control the fluid velocity, and increase heat transfer. A square pitch also allows for mechanical cleaning. But be aware that the Pitch of a tube must be consistent.

A-type rear header

Depending on the size of the condenser, an A-type rear header is the most common type of condenser. This type allows easy access to the tubes without disturbing the pipework. It is less expensive than an S-type rear header, but its disadvantage is that it restricts thermal expansion. This means that the A-type rear header should be selected only when the condenser’s operating pressure is low and its temperature is relatively constant.

The A-type rear header is a type that includes a plate that distributes fluid evenly through the tubes. This plate prevents tube vibrations caused by eddy currents and other effects. The plate also serves as a nozzle, which works as the inlet and outlet port. The shell is made of a metal plate that is rolled into a cylinder with longitudinal joints and a circular cross-section.

Fixed tube sheet exchanger

The Fixed tube sheet exchanger is a condenser made with a tubesheet that is bolted to the shell. Unlike the traditional type of condenser, which has a flanged shell, the fixed tube sheet exchanger is made without a flange. This type of condenser has many benefits. Its simple construction makes it easy to clean and can be easily serviced by chemical or mechanical means. There is no flanged joint, so maintenance and cleaning is quick and easy.

To fabricate a fixed tube sheet exchanger, first fabricate the tube sheets. The tubes are welded or bolted to the shell. The spacers must be spaced evenly, and must be slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the tubes. The spacers must be evenly positioned in both tube-sheet pairs, and the skeleton must be welded together and checked for concentricity.